al Kahf – (the Cave) – Grammatical Analysis – Nouman Ali Khan.
New Series: http://bayyinah.com/elearning/
ATTENTION: (This series Will continue to be updated insha’ Allah (due to many emails recieved from people interested), but will take more time than other tafseers’).
Part 1: Tafseer of Ayah 1 – 5 | Download MP3
Grammatical Analysis of surah al Kahf – Anwar ul Bayaan by fi Halil Lughat ul Qur’an - by Ali Muhammad PST.
5 volumes, Maktabah Syed Ahmad Shaheed. Published in Urdu. We will be focusing on this book.
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ الْكِتَابَ وَلَمْ يَجْعَل لَّهُ عِوَجًا
alhamdulillahi-ladhee anzala ‘alaa abdihi-’l kitaaba wa lam yaj’al lahu ‘iwaja
[All] praise is [due] to Allah , who has sent down upon His Servant the Book and has not made therein any deviance. Alhamdu – the Praise [all of it] – mubtada’
lillah – for Allah.
All praise and thanks belong to Allah.
lillahi aladhee aNzala ‘ala ‘abdihee al kitab..
aladhee (ism mansool) – The One who..
aNzala – [Sarf: if'aal. Others include; yuNzila, aNzaal.] –
(aladhee – The One who) aNzala – SENT DOWN.
It could have been Nazzala – (taf’eel – Partial sending down or sending over time.)
But aNzala implies FULL SENDING DOWN in 1 full package. In totality.(This is the view of Ibn Abbas who said that the Qur’an was in the Lawh al Mahfoodh [guarded tablet] with Allah, and then it was sent FULLY to the Bayt al ‘Izzah in the closest heaven/sky. And from then it was gradually revealed to Prophet Muhammad.
the Praise is for Allah who sent down..
‘Ala – UPON.
Related words which could be used;
Ilaa – [To] could be used, which would imply – a Privilege.
I.e. If Ilaa [to] was used, it would imply that This message was given Specifically to Prophet Muhammad, and no-one else ever got such a privilege of a message from Allah.
However, ‘Ala (upon) implies Responsibility. Allah obliged His Messenger with the responsibility of the application of the message and it’s conveyance.
Ilaa (To) – implies Privilege.
‘Ala (Upon) – implies Responsibility of the carrying of the Message.
‘abdi Hi – His slave.
the ‘Hi’ = His.
It could have been ‘abdi ‘Hu’ (which also means His slave). However, ‘Hi’ [with a Kasra/zeyr] is placed there because of the Kasra/zeyr on the word ‘abdI.
So it is suited to have the Kasra/zeyr [I sound] on the word ‘Hi’ [His] after the word ‘abdI.
The pronunciation is smoother in the Hafs recitation by having the Kasras’ at the end of the two words; ‘abdI hI.
The 1st object mentioned in this ayah is; theSlave (of Allah).
The 2nd object mentioned in this ayah is; theKitab (Book- the Qur’an).
The direct object (maf’ool bihi)
What is maf’ool bihi?
It is usually questions of What and Who.I.e. what did he do it to? What did he send? What did he see? Who did that?).
In this ayah; What did Allah send down upon His slave (Prophet Muhammad)?
Answer (maf’ool bihi) = the Kitab/Book/Qur’an.
..Wa lam yaj’al-lahu ‘iwaja
Wa = and.
The first sentence and the second sentence simply has the meaning of ‘And’.
Another opinion by other scholars;
Waw al Haaliyyah – the sentence coming after it is an Adverbial sentence.
Wa = ‘While’.
The book was sent down, While…
This ‘While’ is an association with the Previous text in comparison to the opinion of az-Zamakshari which would imply that ‘Wa’ = and – a discontinuation/break off/departure from the previous sentence.
Now because az-Zamakshari considers this ‘Atf – his grammatical explanation of this ayah becomes abit problematic.
The vast majority of the scholars/interpreters of this ayah said the ‘Wa’ is infact Haaliyyah – ‘While’. So we will stick to this interpretation, and Allah knows best.
waLam yaj’aL lahu ‘iwaja
The word yaj’aL would really be pronounced as yaj’aLU(damma/peysh). But due to the word Lam placed infront of it – it becomes Jazm – i.e. the yaj’aLU is not pronounced, but it is only pronounced as yaj’aL [forming it into Present/Muddaari' form.]
Lam = Did Not. This makes the word into past tense, even though the saakin on the yaj’aL was formed into present-future tense.
He did not place/even allow..
‘Iwaj - ‘Awj –
‘Awj = a deviation you can see. I.e. A pillar or a tree which you might see which is leaning to the side.
A visual deviation. You can see an ‘Awj in it.
‘Iwaj – an abstract deviation. I.e. In a moral/abstract deviation. Deviation in ideas, beliefs, principles etc.
This is the word being used in this ayah.
The Faa’il (doer) is He (Allah) did not place any ‘Iwaj.
Lahu – jaar/majroor – For it [hu = the Kitab/Book]
He did not allow for it – any ‘Iwaj [ideological deviation in it's morals and principles.]
‘Iwaj – any deviation in the Book so that one part says one thing in the Book, and that another part opposes that in another part of the Book. I.e. There are no contradictions in the Qur’an.
He has not allowed that to happen = He has not placed any ‘Iwaj in the Book.
While He did not allow any ‘Iwaj/deviations in it (the Book – the Qur’an).
قَيِّمًا لِّيُنذِرَ بَأْسًا شَدِيدًا مِّن لَّدُنْهُ وَيُبَشِّرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا
Qayyiman li yuNdhira ba’san shadeedan min la dunhu wa yuBash-shira-’l Mu’mineena aladheena ya’maloona as-Saalihaati anna lahum ajran Hasana[He has made it] straight, to warn of severe punishment from Him and to give good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a good reward
QayyimAn – [nasb state] – that which corrects, taking something deviated and making it upright.
The Qur’an made the deviated people Upright.
Why is it in Nasb form?
Previously we discussed that az-Zamakshari said that QAyyiman is a Haal [Haal - a State form, the way in which something happens]. It is describing aNzala (sending down of the Qur’an).
How did He send it down?
the answer to How is Haal.
az-Zamakshari is saying the answer to How the Qur’an is sent down is that it is Qayyiman [in a state of 'Uprightness'].
This would imply there is a sentence between them; wa lam yaj’al lahu ‘iwaja – which had nothing to do with the Kitab/Book.
He is implying that the Uprightness is in regard to the aNzala (sending down) being Upright.
Other Grammarians: the Qur’an was sent down WHILE it did not have any moral deviation placed IN IT.
(ayah 2) ..Upright…
By using the interpretation of az-Zamakshari; ‘Wa’ as ‘AND’ in this ayah, it separates the Part A of the ayah and connects it directly to ayah 2 while temporarily ignoring part B (of ayah 1.)
Part A: the praise is for Allah who sent down the Book..
Part B: ..and/while He did not place any moral deviation in it.
az-Zamakshari: All praise is for Allah who SENT DOWN THE BOOK… -[part B ignored]-(it is UPRIGHT.)
Other grammarians: All praise is for Allah who sent down the Book,WHILE He did not place any moral deviations in IT [the BOOK].(it is) Upright…
So we see that the more suited interpretation might be to say ‘While’. Because by using the word ‘While’ – it allows the ayah 1 part A to connect smoothly to part B, and then smoothly to ayah 2 without any inconsistencies or skipping any of the meanings of any parts of the aayaat.
He sent it – allowing it to make things Upright (Qayyiman).
As the book was coming down – it was in the state of setting things Upright from the beginning.
Li yuNdhira -
Li – (harf ajal/illa) (Lam al ta’leel) – makes the next word Nasb (fat-ha/zabar).
i.e. Instead of yuNdhirU, it makes it yuNdhirA.
(makes it ‘light’ on the tongue).
Li = So that / in Order to.
In order to warn / in order that it may warn..
yuNdhira – it may warn
(maf’ool bihi) – warn about What?
Ba’san shadeedan – an intense War.
Usually, yuNdhira has the word; ‘AN (of/about) or Bi – With) before it.
BALAGHAH/Eloquence: By removing its mention from the phrase, it Magnifies the object being discussed. The object being mentioned is HUGE. The object being discussed is so Urgent, that Harf (small connecting word i.e. ‘AN or Bi) could not be placed next to the verb (fi’l).
It had to be placed so close to the verb (fi’l) due to its Urgency and Enormity, that the Harf (partial – connecting word is removed.)
Ba’s – War.
Shadeed – Intense.Great difficulty.
Intensely great difficult War. (this is what the Book came to warn about).
Min (harf al-jarf) – from
Ladun (muddaaf) – ism mabni. An ism that doesn’t change at all.
hu (muddaaf ilayh) – him.
= Especially From Him.
Ladun – special ownership. Especially.
= Especially from Him.
..wa yuBashshirA.. (maNsoob/nasb form – fat-ha/zabar).
This is due to the Li mentioned at the beginning of the ayah still being applied on this. (if it was not – it would be yuBashshirU).
This means that; LI yuBashshirA is really stated, except the LI is omitted due to it being mentioned earlier at the beginning of the ayah.
Qayyimun LI yundhira ba’san shadeedan min la dunh, wa (LI) yuBashshir aladheena ya’maloona as-saalihaat…
[The early aayaat/verses of Surah al Fat-h has this theme, of the Muddaari' remains consistently in Nasb form (fat-ha/zabar form).]
yuBashshira - Bashshara / yuBashshiru / taBsheer [Baab al-Taf'eel.] – to Congratulate / give good news / to congratulate thoroughly in a great way.
Give good news to who? Al mu’minEEN – The believerS.
This could be in Nasb [fat-ha/zabar] or Jarr [kasra/zeyr] form.
Nothing can argue in favour of it being Jarr, and one can argue that it may be Nasb based on the yuBashshirA mentioned before earlier in this ayah.
= So that He may congratulate.
(Maf’ool bihi) – Who may He congratulate?
al Mu’mineen – those who truly Believe.
aladheena – those who. (plural of aladhee mentioned ayah 1).
ya’maloona – (fi’l muddaari’ – present tense action) 3rd person – those who do actions..
as-Saalihaat – adjective of Saalihaat. = Good deeds.
as-SaalihaH (Ta marboota) – Multiple female plural.
as-SaalihAAT – adjective of Saalihaat.
Feminine Minimum plural (some grammarians say 10 or less).
Allah mentioned as-SaalihAAT; which means that Allah does not expect that we do an endless amount of good deeds. But He expects that we do some good deeds. This is an extreme Mercy from Him. This is covered through the word as-SaalihAAT.
Salaha – to reconcile and correct something negative into positive.
So what is being implied is that; doing a good deed replaces a bad deed.
Antonym/Opposite: This is why a bad deed is called Dhulm = to misplace something (i.e. place something where it doesn’t belong).
Dhulma – a shadow which obstructs light. I.e. A building blocks the light and therefore causes a shadow.
as-SaalihAATi – (maf’ool bihi). [the kasra/zeyr is there - this is not a Jarr, it is feminine plural].
There is no taNween [Nuun at the end] there because of the Alif, Lam – AL (‘the’) at the beginning.
(i.e. AL cannot be used when taNween (letter Nuun) occurs at the end of the same word.)
It could have been Saalihaat (good deeds). But Allah says AL-saalihaat – THE good deeds.
This is implying that there are very particular/specific, good deeds are which Allah has legislated. We don’t determine the morality based on our intellect alone, rather – our good is based on what Allah has legislated, even if we cannot comprehend it’s wisdom.
I.e. Prophet Ibrahim attempting to sacrifice his son Isma’eel is one of the greatest of his good deeds, because Allah had legislated it for him. Even if we cannot comprehend it = AL saalihaat (THE good deeds [which Allah has legislated]).
Anna – (it is similar to the word ‘Inna’).
= producing a conclusion.
I.e. In this context it mean’s ‘That.’
so those believers who do good, it (the Book) is congratulating them ‘That’…
LaHum – for them.
Really; “anna Ajran Hassana Lahum (that reward of good (will be) for them)” should have been the normal sentence structure.
However, the ‘Lahum’ is placed earlier in the sentence structure for the following reasons;
1 – You should not begin a sentence with a Nakirah (not proper phrase). I.e. If it was Al Ajra hasanah – that would be suitable to be placed at the beginning of the sentence structure. However, Ajran hasanah right at the beginning of an ayah is not correct in grammar.
2 – Ikhtisas [Exclusivity] – this means that the ‘Lahum’ (for them) being placed earlier in the sentence structure implies Exclusivity for that group of people.
a – Anna Lahum Ajran hassana (that For them (exclusively) is a good recompense.
b – “anna ajran hassana lahum” (without Ikhtisas/exclusivity) would mean; That reward of good is for them (and it might be for others too.)
However, reward of good is only for the believers who do good, so the Exclusive phrase [phrase 1] is stated.
‘Only they have a good repayal’.
This alludes to the fact that their are others who falsely assume they will get reward, but they will not. (those who do shirk with Allah [associate partners with Him.])
It also alludes to the fact that it will be a good payback for work that they did. Better reward than what they actually did.
AjrAn HassanA (Nasab form due to the ‘Anna’ mentioned previously).
مَّاكِثِينَ فِيهِ أَبَدًا
Maa kitheena feehi abada In which they will remain forever
Those who remain therein (in the reward – a state [haal] of goodness)
abada – maf’ool (object/darf of time [can also be of place]). Time/place has to be in a Nasb state – i.e. abadA.
fee – in
hi – it (it is in jarr [fat-ha/kasra] state due to the kasra on fee)
Kitheena – remain.
Khalideen – ongoing.
وَيُنذِرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا
wa yundhiraladheena qaalu-takhadh-allahu waladaAnd to warn those who say, ” Allah has taken a son.”
Based on the earlier nasab state of; li yundhirA ba’san shadeedan.
So we have Different purposes for the Book:
Li (For) -
1 – yuNdhira – it to Warn.
2 – yuBashshira – to give Good news/congratulate.
3 – yuNdhira – to Warn.
So we see that there is more emphasis of Warning in this surah, this is why it has been mentioned twice in comparison to the good news.
wa yuNdhira – and so that it may Warn / in order to Warn..
aladheena – those Who (maf’ool bihi).
Qaaloo(fi’l maaddy – past tense verb) -(those who) Said..
ittakhadhA (fi’l maaddy – past tense).
It has a Fat-ha/zabar at the end, so you would think the Faa’il (Doer) is Huwwa (He).
aKhadha – to hold.
ITAkhadha – to hold onto Tightly. Commit to. To be devoted to.
They held onto an idea tightly and devoted themselves to it.
You will see in the Qur’an that Allah will talk about a religious holding onto something as Ittakhadha and not just Khadha, because being devoted to something strongly constitutes your beliefs. And you hold onto them more tightly.
Ittakhadhtum-ul ‘Ijla – when you devoted yourself tightly to the calf – Quran surah al Baqarah.
(Allah is talking about the jews when they worshipped the calf/cow and devoted themselves strongly to it.)
Those who took with great Zeal, they said – Allah seriously took a son (walad).
aTtakhadha (fi’l maaddy – past tense action/verb)
Allahu – Allah [Faa'il - doer]
waladan – son (maf’ool bihi – i.e. This answers the ‘What/Who’ question in the statement.).
مَّا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ وَلَا لِآبَائِهِمْ ۚ كَبُرَتْ كَلِمَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۚ إِن يَقُولُونَ إِلَّا كَذِبًا
maa lahum bihi min ilmin wa laa li aabaa’ihim. kaburat kalimatan takhruju min afwaahihim. in yaqooloona il-laa kadhiba
They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.
Maa – is more powerful negation than Laa (No).
This ayah could be said in so many ways, i.e.;
1 – Laysa ‘ilmun lahum
2 – Maa ‘ilmun lahum
3 – Laa ‘ilmun lahum.
(all imply – ‘they have no knowledge’ in different degrees of strength of negation.)
Why did Allah say the ayah the way He did?
Allah chose this specific syntax;
-Maa is stronger than Laa.
- Maa MIN ‘ilmun – they don’t have ANY knowledge whatsoever.
Allah said; Maa Lahum bihee min ‘ilmin..
By placing the ‘LaHum’ (for them) earlier in the sentence structure, it implies;
1- Especially them, they are the ones who have no knowledge (regarding what they claim.)
This is implying that the Christians who thought they were the knowledgable ones are infact the ignorant ones in regard to this issue.
i.e.‘It is infact they who have no knowledge..’
2 – the words ‘LaHum’ [for them] are placed closer to the strong negation of ‘Maa’. Which strengthens the negation against their claim.
Bihee – regarding this [claim] (against Allah), they have no knowledge.
[bihee is almost serving the role of the word 'AN]
Maybe they might be sophisticated in other worldly matters, but they are ignorant on their claim (that Allah has taken a son).
..wa Laa li aabaaa/ihim – and neither for their forefathers (neither did they have any true knowledge regarding this false claim.)
The emphasis on their fathers (LAA li aabaaa/ihim) is less and there is more emphasis for the children (Maa is used – MAA lahum min ‘ilmin).
Why is this?
Laa – can be used for Neither/Nor. For Continuity.
i.e. Neither (maa) they nor (laa) they. You start with Maa and then continue the negation with Laa.
However, there is another reason why Maa (stronger Negation) is stated for the children/offspring of previous people who claimed that Allah took a son.
Why is Maa used for them?
The forefathers may not have had a Messenger come to them to refute their false beliefs. (so a weaker negation – Laa – is used against them.)
However – the christians who did have a Messenger (Prophet Muhammad and the Quran) come to them with clear signs – why are they still rejecting him? (a Stronger negation is required for these people in comparison to their forefathers who did not recieve such a Messenger.)
wa laa Li aabaa/ihim – and neither For their forefathers.
Li – harf jarr.
him (muddaaf ilayh)
KaburAt – “how Huge it is” [feminine word - mubalagha/hyberbole/maximum strength form]
But how is it huge, in What sense?
Nasb/mansoob [fat-ha/zabar] = tamyeez – Distinction / in terms of..
Huge in terms of..
(kaburat)KalimaTan – (huge) Speech.
(kaburaT was feminine because Speech/kalimaTan is Feminine.)
..(kaburat) Kalimatan taKhruju…
Why isn’t “Al-latee” (‘that which’) placed before; ‘taKhruju’ (‘comes Out’)?
I.e. kaburat Kalimatan “al-latee” takhruju…
Reason: It is not mentioned because the word Kalimatan has no AL (Alif, Lam = ‘The.’) before it.
Kalimatan is common. If it is not common, AL is placed before it. If AL is placed before it, then “Aladhee” (male form) or “Al-latee” (feminine form) [meaning 'that which'] is placed before it.
..kaburat Kalimatan taKhruju min aFwaahihim (an enormous Word comes Out from their Mouths.)
kaburat (huge) – past tense. (al-hudooth). Single instant.
taKhruju (comes out) – present-future tense (Muddaari’). Continuity.
So Allah is covering all tenses. He is implying that what they say is so huge, yet they persist/continue to repeat this enormity of a (evil) statement.
min aFwaahihim – from their mouths.
aFwaa (plural – mouths) – Fam (singular) – mouth.
How enormous of a statement comes out of their mouths…
In yaqooloona il-laa kadhiba:
in – usually means ‘if’
but when it comes with the word “il-laa” in the same sentence, it means; ‘not at all‘.
So in this ayah, what is meant is;
Laa yaqooloona il-laa kadhiba
Maa yaqooloona il-laa kadhiba
= They do not say, except a lie.
In Balaghah/Rhetoric – The taNween (letter Nuun placed at the end of a word) usually refers to Magnimity/Magnifying something.
in yaqooloona il-laa KadhibaN
they do not say except a Huge Lie.
ajran HasanaN (Enormous Good reward). (surah al Kahf [18:]2)
KadhibaN (Enormous lie) (ayah [18:]5).
Kahf 2 – (ayah 6-8) – Grammatical Analysis
فَلَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمْ إِن لَّمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَٰذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَسَفًا
fa la’al-laka baakhi’un nafsika ‘alaa aathaarihim, in lam yu’minoo bi haadha al hadeethi asafa
Then perhaps you would kill yourself through grief over them, [O Muhammad], if they do not believe in this message, [and] out of sorrow.
fa – Then/so. [harf.]
Related to another Harf in this ayah ‘In’ (a jumla Shartiyyah – a Conditional statement)
The Jawab/response is attached to the beginning of the ayah instead. (with the conditional statement placed at the end).
This is done to emphasise it’s Importance. So it is placed first in the sentence structure instead of the end.
(Fa – then) La’ala ka,,
has Multiple connotations;
1 – Mushaaba bi Fi’l.
2 – Makes the word Nasb after it; i.e. InnA, annakA, Laakin-nA, LaytA etc. It belongs to that group.
3 – It has a few implications:
Ta’ajji – [La'ala=] hope, but also fear.
I.e. “La’ala-Ka = it is hoped/feared that You…”
This harf (connective word) can go in 3 directions;
1 - the Speaker himself.
I.e. When the people supported the magicians at the time of Pharoah;
وَقِيلَ لِلنَّاسِ هَلْ أَنتُم مُّجْتَمِعُونَ. لَعَلَّنَا نَتَّبِعُ السَّحَرَةَ إِن كَانُوا هُمُ الْغَالِبِينَ
…La’ala-Naa la-tabi’oo as-sahara –
And it was said to the people, will you gather [together]? It is hoped that we will follow the magicians, if they overcome Moses. (we hope that they do so we can continue following their way.)
2 – The Speaker is hoping for a 3rd person.
وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّىٰ – wa ma adraaka La’alahu ya-zakkaa (perhaps/i hope – he will purify himself) – surah Abasa 80:3.
3 - Expressing the hope of someone else.
I.e. someone hopes someone else does something.
So this ayah [Kahf 18:6] has 2 implications (through the word “La’ala”):
1 – (It is) FEARED that you will kill yourself in grief…
2 - (The disbelievers) HOPE that you will kill yourself in grief, because they do not believe in this message.
1 – is the concern of Allah for His Messenger, because the conveyance of the message is a heavy task. So Allah’s Messenger is feeling that he is not fulfilling his duty properly. This is what is killing him.
Allah is telling His Messenger (sal Allah alaihi wasalam) that you are fulfilling your duty, and that you are conveying it according to the high standard which Allah has set for you. So this ayah is a reassurance from Allah to His Messenger.
2 - is the hope of the disbelievers in wanting Allah’s Messenger to die so the message is given up and ended completely.
..Fa (then) La’ala-Ka (it is feared/hoped – You) Baakhi’un…
Baakhi’un – (ism Faa’il) -
[Ba, Kha, 'Ayn = Bakh' - Literally: to Drive yourself to Death, kill yourself, over grief/sadnesss/extreme Depression].
A-laa ayyuhal BAKHI’ ul wajdi nafsah – O you the one who is killing himself over this extreme grief (which he finds in himself).
“taBkha’u” (you are going to kill yourself – Fi’l [verb form]) is not stated in this ayah. Because verbs/actions might only be done once.
Rather “Baakhi’ (ism faa’il [noun]) form is used. This shows that it is a serious matter, it shows more permanency of such thoughts and feelings. A constant feeling of such thoughts.
Nafsa-(Ka) – (your) self [muddaaf] (maNsoob). Because the ism faa’il can act as a f’il. So it can have a Maf’ool bihi (an Object.)
i.e. We see an Object for Ism and Ism Faa’il too.
i.e. wal hafidheena (guardians – ism faa’il) furoojahum (maf’ool bihi)… – surah Zumar.
So Baakhi’un (ism faa’il) but acts as a Faa’il (doer).
NafsaKa (Your Self) – Maf’ool bihi.
Are you going to kill yourself…
‘alaa – harf jarr – upon
him (muddaaf ilayh) – them.
AaThaaR – AThR [with a Sukun on the Ra] = sign/symbol/footprint (see [18:]64 ayah of this surah)
= You do an act and it leaves a consequence behind. I.e. Footprints – you walk and they leave a mark behind you.
So what is being implied is that the Christians sayings (about Allah having a son) leaves consequences behind them. Not just what they believe, but its the consequences for their false beliefs;
1 – the Beliefs and the consequences for these peoples’ beliefs on Judgment Day.
2 – the Consequences of this belief on/for future generations. (I.e. We know there are many ahadith which emphasise future conflicts between the Muslims and the Christians near the end times.)
When they hear the truth and they still reject it, this is what Prophet Muhammad is concerned over (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) – the consequences of their disbelief.
In – if
lam yu’minoo – they do not believe.
Lam: forces the meaning of ‘No’ into the past tense.
If they don’t believe and they are adamant of not believing,
BI [=with] – harf al-jarf – compliment of the word emaan/aamana.
So the word Emaan has different attachments to it, each implying different meanings for that word;
1 – Aamana – (without any letters attached) = Believe.
2 – Emaan BI-illah (attached with the letter Baa) [= believe IN]
3 – Emaan LAka (Laam) – i.e. Lan-nu’mina LAka… (surah al Baqarah)
[= submit into something.]
i.e. Bani Isra’eel believed in Moses as a Messenger of Allah, but they said;
Lan-nu’mina LAka hat-taa naRa Allaha jahra – we will not submit until we see Allah clearly. (surah al Baqarah)
In lam yu’mini Bi haadha al hadeethi..
if they have not believed IN this new saying..
haadha = [this.] (muraqqab ishari / ism ul ishara hadha)
al hadeeth [new saying] (mushaar ilayh).
It is not considered Mawsoof in siffah although their properties are clearly identical between “haadha” and “hadeeth.”
Also, “bI” is a harf Jarr (kasra/zeyr on the last letter of the connective word), but we do not see the word “haadha” in a Jarr (kasra/zeyr) state (because it is Mabni [inflexible]).
So the effect of the harf Jarr of “bI” is shown on the word “hadeethI” after the word “haadha”.
The effect of “bI” is meant on haadha but due to its inflexibility, it is shown on “hadeethI.”
hadeethi = new statement. In this ayah, the word Hadeeth (new speech) is referring to the Qur’an.
asaf – Intense sorrow.
Even in modern, this word is used to imply the meaning of sorrow;
Min al mu’sif, ‘Aasifan etc.
You don’t say ‘Aasif to someone in normal circumstances, you only say it when you are Extremely sorry.
Normally you say ‘Afwan (lovingly forgive me) if you make a mistake. But if you do a great harm, then you say ‘Aasifan (Extremely sorry).
In modern arabic, this word is Extreme. However, in classical arabic it is even more intense in meaning.
Why is it in the Nasb state? (asafAn)
Baakhi’un (ism Faa’il/Faa’il) Nafsaka (maf’ool bihi)
asafan (maf’ool lahu – an object that attributes a reason for that act).
i.e. I stood for him (maf’ool), out of respect (maf’ool lahu)
So the Messenger of Allah is being addressed as if he is wanting to kill himself, out of Aasifan (extreme grief).
Aasifan by being placed in the end implies; It’s okay if they don’t believe in me, but atleast believe in this message.
This shows the extremity of sadness, how much more sad can someone get? Where they don’t even care about themselves and just want people to be safe by believing in the message.
إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا مَا عَلَى الْأَرْضِ زِينَةً لَّهَا لِنَبْلُوَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا
innaa ja’alnaa maa ‘ala-’l arDi zeenatan lahaa li naBluwahum ayyuhum AHsanu ‘amalan
Indeed, We have made that which is on the earth adornment for it that We may test them [as to] which of them is best in deed.
Inna – mubtada’ – Surely
from Nahnu (We). Sometimes it is; Innana, other times Innaa.
Innaa is fused together.
Innanaa – is more powerful.
(both are used in the Qur’an).
Why? Because; When you hear a more complete sound in an Arabic word = the more the meaning.
InNaa – It is an Emphatic statement (Surely we). [mubtada' (ism/noun)]
The following of the ayah is Khabr and jumlah fi’liyyah (verbal sentence).
This could be said;
Qad ja’alnaa – we Have made (jumlah fi’liyyah)
But Allah said;
Innaa ja’alnaa – Surely we have made (jumlah ismiyyah)
[Emphatic statement - Emphasis].
The Faa’il (Doer) is in the word “ja’alNaa” (We made).
It is also in the word “inNaa” = surely We.
So the ayah means;
inNaa ja’alNaa – surely We, We made.. (a strong Emphasis on Allah being the One who did this.)
A strong emphasis [and Theme in the surah] is on Allah alone being the One who creates the delusions of the world, all that is in it.
Surely, it is only We who have made what is on the Earth as beauty for testing you, which of you is best in actions.
People who attribute the good outcome of this world to ‘mother nature’.
Allah is refuting such claims.
Maa – what (Maa al Mansoolah)
‘ala al arD – upon the Earth.
So what did Allah make;
1 – He made all that is upon the Earth.
2 – He made number all that is on the Earth a Zeena = adornment/decoration.
Zeenata – beauty/adornment/decoration.
la ha – for her
Allah did not make this world for the believers full enjoyment:
huwwa aladhee ja’ala lakum maa fi-’l arDi jamee’an - He is the One who made for you all that is on the earth.
zuyyina liladheena kafaroo al hayaat ad-dunya – beautified for those who disbelieve is the worldly life.
وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا مَتَاعُ الْغُرُورِ – wa maa al hayaat ad-dunya il-laa mataa’ al ghuroor (and what is the life of this world except tools of deception). – [aal Imran 3:185]
So this world is beautified for the disbelievers, it is beauty for the world as signs for us (to get closer to Allah), but it is just a useage (mataa’) to do good to move onto the next life. [
Li naBluwwaHum - For us (to) Test Them
Li (Lam harf al Ta'leel) - makes the Muddaari'/present tense into the Nasab state (Fat-ha/zabar).
= Balaa/yaBluw becomes yabluwA
NaBluw - We Test.
NaBluwaHum - We Test Them (maf'ool bihi)..
Ayyu (jumlah i'tiraadiyyah) [mubtada'] (muddaaf) - Which.
hum – them (muddaaf ilayh)
Ahsanu = Best [Husn = Good. the Alif [A] at the beginning = Most. = Most Good/beautiful etc..]
[1 - khabar.
2 - ism al-Tafdeel - that's why its Ahsanu and not AhsanuN.
3 - AhsanA remains the same in Nasb and Jarr state, so it is not AhsanI except when its Muddaaf or when it has an "Al" attached before it.]
‘amalAn – Actions done with thought.
[Nasb state - al Tamyeez - Distinction/Specification. ]
It is channeling the meaning in One direction.
Ahsanu – beautiful.
(ie. Aktharu [mumayyaz] Maalan [tamyeez] – More (in) Wealth.)
i.e. The word Maalan specifies what there is more of.]
We see the Nasb (fat-ha/zabar) state has been used so much i.e. In;
Maf’ool which gives 2 objects after it
La’ala makes the next word Nasb.
There are overall 16 categories which make a word Nasb (fat-ha/zabar) state.
aHsanu ‘amala – Best ‘in terms of (tamyeez)’ actions.
وَإِنَّا لَجَاعِلُونَ مَا عَلَيْهَا صَعِيدًا جُرُزًا
wa inNaa la jaa’iloona maa alayhaa sa’eedan juruza
And indeed, We will make that which is upon it [into] dust and barren ground.
This is even more stronger because ja’alna (was fi’l maaddiy)
The ‘wa’ is doing Ittisaal to the sentence. So the previous ayah is connected in sentence form to this ayah.
So we should know these 2 things are connected.
‘Wa’ [harf attaf - connecting it to the previous ayah]
inNaa – surely We ['Surely' (Inn) connected with Nahnu (We) shortened = Naa = InNaa)].
[Lam al Tawkeed. Khabr. We know it is not Lam Harf al Jarr (kasra/zeyr) because then it would be LI Jaa'ilEEna.]
InNaa – Surely We (will)
La – Certainly
Jaa’iloona – Make (state of Faa’il/ism Faa’il)
There will be 2 Maf’ool:
1 – Maa alayha (what is upon her)
2 – Sa’eedun juraza (bare dry soil).
inNaa – surely We
The Ism [noun] form is used to establish Certainty that it is coming. This is why inNaa is mentioned again.
maa – what
alayHa – upon Her (the Earth is a feminine word so ‘Ha’=her). It is a continuation from the previous ayah which mentioned the Earth. So in this ayah, we know the Earth is referred to as ‘her.’
(mansoof and siffah)
Sa’eed – Dust. (ism siffa mushabahah) [Sa'ood - an Elevated height] is also mentioned in the Qur’an.
So right now you see Mountains and heights of buildings etc. (sa’ood) However, one day they will all collapse apart and all you will see above you and around you is Dust (sa’eed).
Juruza – Lifeless / dead. From the word Jarz – to kill off a land so no vegetation grows on it.
I.e. When a land has plants and trees and life, when all that is destroyed and the land is barren/dead = Juruza.
So Allah is telling us through these 2 words that all that is Above you and Below you will become lifeless, dead and only dust / nothingness.
Allah has shown His creative power over the Earth and how He has placed so much life, height and beauty in it. Yet He will cause it all to become lifeless and nothingness.
Grammatical overview of ayah:
InNaa – Surely We (mubtada’)
La Jaa’iloon – Certainly making (khabar)
maa – what (ism mawsool, maf’ool bihi of la jaa’iloona)
‘alayha - upon her (connected / silatul-Mawsool) of Maa.
Sa’eedun juruza – dust and lifeless (mansoof and siffa – both maNsoob (fat-ha/zabar state) because they are attached with La ja’iloona – they are the 2nd maf’ool bihi).
Surah al Kahf (9-12):
أَمْ حَسِبْتَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْكَهْفِ وَالرَّقِيمِ كَانُوا مِنْ آيَاتِنَا عَجَبًا
am hasibta anna aS-haaba-’l Kahfi war-Raqeemi kaanoo min aayaatinaa ‘Ajaban
Or have you thought that the companions of the cave and the inscription were, among Our signs, a wonder?
Am hasibta anna aS-haab al Kahfi war-Raqeem..
1 – Am muntasil = ‘Whether’ you do this or that, you will get the Same result.
(it is usually used when the word: “Sawaa’ or Sawaa’un ‘alayhim [taswiyah]” are said.)
= Putting 2 things together and Equating them.
2 – Am munqata’ -
Something has come and Am is coming as a Higher Alternative.
It can also come as the word ‘Rather’.
Similar to the word “Bal” (Rather.)
In this ayah, the “Am” is being used as the word ‘Rather’.
“Rather, do you assume..?”
What is the point of Am being used here. In what way is it providing a Higher alternative? Providing a higher alternative to what?
The earlier aayaat of this surah have discussed some really powerful and dramatic events. I.e. The Earth and what is on it becoming dust, and lifeless.
Now the upcoming aayaat are also going to be dramatic – showing supernatural events of the young men when they flee to a Cave (Kahf) -for safety- from the disbelievers.
So now that you have heard of these massive events – of the Earth becoming lifeless and dust -, does the narrative of the young men seem amazing/shocking ['Ajab] to you?
So the ‘Am is signifying – ‘Rather – are you shocked?’ Why are you shocked at a small event in contrast to when Allah can make the the whole, entire Earth lifeless after it’s life.
HasibTa [You Assume] (past tense) - Hasiba = to Assume.
HasibTa - (have) You Assumed?
[The rest of the ayah is Maf'ool bihi = answers 'What'.] What is being Assumed?
Anna – Surely
aS-haab – Companions[plural]. Singular: Saahib – companion.
Kahf [singular] – Large and Deep Cave.
Difference of opinion, but some of the Salaf [pious predecessors] and scholars said:
1 – it is the Dog of these young men.
2 – it is the Town in which this incident occured.
3 – it is the Mountain in which the Cave (Kahf) was.
From a Sarf perspective, the word ar-Raqeem is Ism Siffah mushabahah. [= Fa'eel, i.e. Shaheed, Hameed.] This enhances the meaning of the word
It is Ism Maf’ool, Siffah.
Haamid [Faa'il/DoER] = PraisER.
But as an Ism Maf’ool Siffah [Noun which describes an Attribute] it can either be said as;
maHmood = who is praised once.
HamEEd = Constantly praised.
So one word can have 2 meanings based on what type it is:
Ism Faa’il [Action Doer] constant PraisER.
Ism Maf’ool [Action Done] – constantly PraisED.
If maSh-Huud was:
Ism Faa’il [Action Doer] = WitnessER.
Ism Maf’ool [Action Done] = WitnessED.
So the context is really important in understanding the meaning.
ar-Raqeem in this ayah is;
Ism Maf’ool – implying – maRqoom [Raqm] = InscribED.
The names of these young men were Inscribed and preserved for a long time. Some narrations say their names were inscribed, and their trials were inscribed/preserved in history.
Some also say that when they were discovered – their names were matched with the Inscriptions. Due to the significance of the events which took place in their lives.
[Grammar: All the above is Mubtada']
Mubtada’ al Thani – the 2nd:
KaanOO – THEY (had) Been.
Am hasibta anna aS-haab al kahfi warRaqeemi kaanoo..
Rather, (do) you assume surely Companions of the cave and Inscriptions, they (had) been..
When the Verb (doing word) is placed Later in a sentence structure, and the Object is mentioned Earlier, it can produce either of the following effects in meaning;
-Madh [Praise/elevating importance]
A normal arabic sentence structure: kaanoo ajaban min aayaatiNaa – they (had) been amazing from Our signs.
The sentence structure in this ayah:
kaanoo min aayaatiNaa ‘ajaba – they (had) been from [Exclusively-Muqaddam] Our signs amazing/strange/unique/shocking (Adjective form).
‘Ajaban = StrangeNESS/uniqueNESS.
To show the power of an adjective, you can use the Masdar [idea] to describe the Siffah (Attribute).
[i.e. Allah is al 'Adl. al 'Adl = the Justice.
We used a Masdar (idea i.e. justice), and described Allah's Attribute as the idea of Justice. This enhances His Attribute to a magnified level = Allah IS Justice.]
So by saying that they were Exclusively from the signs of Allah – ‘Ajaban/AmazingNESS = they are an EXTREMELY Amazing sign of Allah. They are an AmazingNESS in of themselves.
If it was:
Amazing/Strange = Ajeeban.
Extremely Unusually Strange = AJABAN. (Hyperbola/maximum form).
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إِذْ أَوَى الْفِتْيَةُ إِلَى الْكَهْفِ فَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا
idh awa-’l fityatu ila-’l kahfi fa qaaloo Rabbanaa aatinaa min ladunKa Rahmatan wa hayyi’ lanaa min amrinaa Rashadan
[Remember] when the youths retreated to the cave and said, “Our Lord, grant us from Yourself mercy and prepare for us from our affair right guidance.”
Idh [when]- may come from – uDhkur (Remember when..)
So ‘Idh’ has such a meaning: ‘Remember when..’/Remind yourself when..
Awa – Uwiyu -
Ma’wa – the final place of rest [i.e. sometimes it is used to describe Hell in the Qur'an].
Awa – [Verb] – the place where you Ascend or Descend to and move to and rest/settle there. You settle there and you are stuck there, you cannot get out of it. (i.e. a jail). Awa is more permanent of a staying place.
Sakana – to Live and Reside somewhere (i.e. moving houses and living somewhere.) But you will not be stuck there.
When both Feminine Action and Female Doer is discussed, or both Male action and Male doer are said – it means ALOT [big plural] from that category.
When mixed genders used i.e. Male Doer, and a Female describing Verb = SMALL plural.
-Jam’u Qillah (less than 10 or a small amount) = mixed gender words used [for Actor and Action].
-Jam’u Kathrah (maximum plural – Alot. Usually more than 10) = same gender words used. [for Actor and Action.]
Let’s see the following Example in Surah Yusuf:
وَقَالَ نِسْوَةٌ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ امْرَأَتُ الْعَزِيزِ تُرَاوِدُ فَتَاهَا عَن نَّفْسِهِ ۖ قَدْ شَغَفَهَا حُبًّا ۖ إِنَّا لَنَرَاهَا فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ
And women in the city said, “The wife of al-’Azeez is seeking to seduce her slave boy; he has impassioned her with love. Indeed, we see her [to be] in clear error.” [Yusuf 12:30]
Qaala Niswatun fi-’l Madeenah - (a Few) women Said in the City..
-Faa’il (Subject/Doer) NiswaTun is referring to women Females.
-Fi’l (Verb/Doing word) [is said in a Male way]. Qaala (Said)*
*Qaala = (masculine) Said
QaalaT = (Feminine) Said.
So we see that only a Few Women from the city Said something (rumours about Prophet Yusuf and the woman), not alot.
[if there were alot of of women (more than 10), it would be said; QaalaT NiswaTun..]
Going back to this ayah 10 of surah al Kahf:
There were a Few young men.
If it was said;
awaTa-al fityaTu (both words Feminine) = when Alot of them Fled.
But this is the words in the really ayah;
إِذْ أَوَى الْفِتْيَةُ
But the Awa is a Masculine word.
fityaTu is a Feminine word.
= This shows there were a FEW young men fleeing.
Ilaa – to
al Kahf – the Deep Cave.
fa QaalOO – then THEY Said..
RabbAnaa – our Master
Grammar: [maNsoob - fat-ha/zabar. Normally, at the beginning of a sentence, it should be maRfoo' - damma/peysh. I.e. It should be RabbUnaa.]
Why is it maNsoob?
Whenever RabbAnaa is mentioned, in maNsoob form – it is always a Du’a [invocation/prayer].
This is why if you call abdUllah out loud, you will say "ya abdAllah" - because it is a call out (du'a) to him.]
- Whenever RabbUnaa is mentioned, it is not a Du’a, rather – it is a Statement about ‘our Master’.
[MuDaaf = PossessED] & ['MuDaaf ilayh' = 'Possessed to him' / PossessER.]
In a Du’a/Invocation, if there is a MuDaaf AND MuDaaf ilayh – then the statement becomes maNsoob (fat-ha/zabar).
I.e. Ya RabbAnaa (O Master OF us).
- However, “ya RabbU” ["O Master"] (maRfoo’ form – Damma/peysh) will be said if there is no ‘MuDaaf’/PossessED.
There is no ‘Ya ‘ (O..) said because it is already understood.
Rabbanaa (Our Master) – [ism muNaada - Calling out Loud (i.e. in prayer).] -
AatiNaa – Give Us.
[To make maJzoom (sukun):
Grammar: Yu'tiY - minus - the letter Yaa's = A'tiy. But the arabs don't like hiccup type speech, so A'tiy becomes "Aati" for smooth recital.]
AatiNaa – Give us..
Min – from
They could have said;
give us From You (MinKa – from you).
But they said;
aatinaa min LadunKa – give us from Especially and specifically You.
LadunKa implies – A special favour on your behalf.So they are asking from Allah something which is out of the ordinary. Something which is more special than what normal people get from Allah.
RahmatAn – maNsoob (fat-ha/zabar). This is Maf’ool bihi – these give the answers to ‘What‘.
I.e. The young men asked for something, but What (maf’ool bihi) was it that they asked for? They asked for a special Mercy from Allah.
Maf’ool bihi made this maNsoob = RahmatAn.
..wa hayyi’ la naa - and hayyi’ for us..
hayya’a – to provide the means for a Project for a task.
So they are asking Allah to provide them with a Means (hayyi’) for staying upon guidance in a world full of corruption and oppression.
I.e. These young men were had to flee with their religion and hide in a cave because the kings were forcing them to polytheism/idol worship.
min – in regards to
similar interchangable word;
‘an – about / from
These words meanings change according to the Fi’l (verb) context of the sentence.
‘Amr – situation/command. Since you have certain control over your situations.
Rashadan (maf’ool bihi of Hayyi’) =
To be good, straightness, guidance, uprightness.
Give us the means for Uprightness.
فَضَرَبْنَا عَلَىٰ آذَانِهِمْ فِي الْكَهْفِ سِنِينَ عَدَدًا
fa Darabnaa ‘alaa aadhaanihim fee-’l kahfi sineena ‘adada
So We cast [a cover of sleep] over their ears within the cave for a number of years.
Fa - Then/So (as a consequence). [Jawaadiyyah.]
When they made du’a/prayer, Allah responded to their prayer.
So what did He do?
DarabNaa – We Striked.
Daraba/yaDribu – to Strike/hit.
Their is a word (maf’ool bihi) which is missed out in this ayah;
fa Darabnaa HIJAABan ‘alaa aadhaanihim – we struck a BARRIER upon their ears.
It is missed out because the meaning is obvious. – that Allah placed a barrier over their ears so they couldn’t listen.
- This is a common theme in the Qur’an - obvious words will be ommitted/removed because they are so clear, that they are not mentioned.
- The exception is if obvious words are added, and this will be for an extra meaning. Meanings which are ‘Beyond the obvious’.
i.e. Prophet Ibrahim said about Allah;
وَالَّذِي هُوَ يُطْعِمُنِي وَيَسْقِينِ
And He is who feeds me and gives me drink [Shu'ara 26:79]
Huwwa YuTt’imunee – He it is, He who Feeds me.
Ibrahim could have said; YuTt’imoonee – He Feeds me.
But by having the word; Huwwa (He) placed at the beginning, it emphasises that it is Allah ALONE who feeds me.
fee al kahfi – in the cave.
Sineena – Years. [jam'u kathrah/
Broken plural - which should be a Feminine word).)
'Adadan - Period. [masculine form]
(Ma’doodah [Feminine form] should really be used.)
But by mixing genders, it again shows a small plural – which shows that;
1 - In the sight of Allah, they were there -in the cave- for only a few number of years. [Whereas according to us humans (in regard to history), they were in the cave for a long time - 300years.]
2 - A 2nd reason why is this more Adada is used is to fit in with the context of the whole surah – of the world being limited for a short time only, yet people think that the next life is so far away. But Allah is hinting at us that it is really near – it is only a short span of time.
إِنَّهُمْ يَرَوْنَهُ بَعِيدًا. وَنَرَاهُ قَرِيبًا
- surely they see it (Judgment Day) as far, but We see it as near. (surah Ma’arij 70: 6-7)
..Sineena adada.. - a little time period.
1 – Allah is countering the view of the people who felt that this whole event was Ajaban – Strangeness = Extremely Strange.
2 – Allah is showing us that this short time period is only a small, its not hard for Allah to make people remain in a state of temporary sleep for a few centuries. (doesn’t this story of the young men being asleep for centuries – then waking back to life – remind you of death of humans and Judgment Day?)
ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاهُمْ لِنَعْلَمَ أَيُّ الْحِزْبَيْنِ أَحْصَىٰ لِمَا لَبِثُوا أَمَدًا
thumma ba’athnaa hum li na’lama ayyu-’l hizbayni aHSaa limaa labithoo amadan
Then We awakened them that We might show which of the two factions was most precise in calculating what [extent] they had remained in time.
Thumma – Then, after some time..
Thumma implies that A happens, then after a While B happens.
Whereas ‘Fa’ (then) implies A happened, then Suddenly B happened as a consequence.
Also, Fa does not have to be chronologically in order. It can just be used as ‘Then’. I.e. Switching from one topic to another related topic fluently.
Thumma – then, after some time
Ba’athNaaHum – We Raised them out..
Li (Laam al ta’leel = to give Purpose) = in Order to / so that..
Na’lamA – maNsoob (fat-ha/zabar) -
We may know (i.e. We may Expose [because Allah already knows really]).
If it was;
Li na’lam. (maJzoom – sukun/silence on Meem).
The meaning would be different.
The ‘Li’ would have a different purpose. It would not be Laam al ta’leel (giving Purpose), rather – it would be Laam al ‘Amr (Laam of Command) = We Should know.
The rest of the ayah is Maf’ool bihi (the answer to ‘What’ Allah exposed):
AyyU (maRfoo’ – damma/peysh) = Which
al Hizbayn – the 2 groups:
Hizb = (there are many words for ‘group’ but Hizb=) Group which specifically has an Agenda/Motive.
It also implies that there is a Clash between 2 Groups (Hizbayn) [i.e. A common example from the Qur'an = HizbAllah and Hizb ash-shaytaan].
Some scholars of Tafseer said the 2 groups may be referring to either;
1 – 2 groups from within the group of the young men in the cave.
2 – The different groups (mentioned in later aayaat) outside of the Cave who disputed about these young men.
3 – The people of the Cave was one group, and the people of the city they were exposed to was another group.
4 – The believers were one group and disbelievers another group.
Faa’il (Doer) – Nahnu (WE = Allah) [in: Na'lamu].
Fi’l (Verb) – Li Na’lamu (so we Know)
maf’ool bihi is the rest of the ayah, Jumlah ismiyyah.
ayyu al hizbayni – (muDaf and muDaf ilayh) mubtada’
aHSaa – khabar
aHSaa – iHSaa – the Best in Counting.
(The ‘A’/Alif at the beginning is: af’alu Tafdeel – the Best.
I.e. Hasan = Good. Ahsan = Best.
Kabr = Big. Akbar = BiggEST.
HaSaa in arabic means – Pebbles.
The arabs would use pebbles to count.
iHSaa [from If'aal] means ‘to Count’.
AHSaa – Best in Counting.
Best in Counting what?
The Duration/time in which they stayed there in the Cave.
Li maa Labithoo – for what they remained (how long they stayed) in the cave.
Surah al-Kahf Ayah :13-17.
نَّحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ نَبَأَهُم بِالْحَقِّ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ فِتْيَةٌ آمَنُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ وَزِدْنَاهُمْ هُدًى
Nahnu naQuSu ‘alayka naba’ahum bi-l haqqi, innahum fityatun Aamanoo bi-Rabbihim wa zidnaahum hudan
It is We who relate to you, [O Muhammad], their story in truth. Indeed, they were youths who believed in their Lord, and We increased them in guidance.
NaQusu = We narrate
Nahnu NaQusu = We, We narrate (Emphasis.)
This is done because some people say that other people narrate this story, but Allah is telling us that it is surely He who narrates it with truth.
Nahnu = We (mubtada’)
Na = We (Fi’l [verb] – has to be maRfoo’)
QussU – Narrate as a Story (a story that you ‘Follow’)
‘alayKa – upon you
Naba’a – (maf’ool bihi – object) News (of)
Hum – them
al-haqq (the truth)
Orignal Pronouns are always Raf’.
Attached Pronouns are either Nasb or Jarr. (i.e. Nahnu can morph into Na [nasb form], Anta can be ‘Ka’ [suffix] etc.)
Dameer (pronouns) can be attached to a;
- Fi’l (verb) = Nasb
- Ism = Jarr
- harf al Jarr = Jarr
- harf al nasb = nasb
- attached to nothing = Default Raf’
jaar al majroor;
‘alay-ka – upon you
This should have been at the end of the ayah/sentence structure, however – it has been placed earlier in the sentence structure to show that it is specific to Prophet Muhammad.
“We, We narrate -Only- to you (O Muhammad) with truth..”
This news came from Allah to Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasalam) Exclusively – and the Bani Isra’eel would confirm this through some of their knowledge of history.
Why didn’t the Bani Isra’eel know it from Allah? Because these young men’s story happened after the lifetime of Jesus, and there were no Messengers’ after Jesus (peace be upon him) to inform of this story.
So Allah is telling us; “We, We narrate Exclusively (ikhtisas) to you (O Muhammad) with truth..”
1 – With
2 – Haaliyah – the means by which it is narrated to you (through Angel Jibreel/Gabriel) is also the Truth. I.e. An angel really did reveal it to you from Allah (O Muhammad).
3 – The Purpose of it is the truth – it is being revealed for a Purpose = a reminder by which people benefit from (bi-’l haqq).
وَرَبَطْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ إِذْ قَامُوا فَقَالُوا رَبُّنَا رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَن نَّدْعُوَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلَٰهًا ۖ لَّقَدْ قُلْنَا إِذًا شَطَطًا
wa RabaTnaa ‘alaa Quloobihim idh Qaamoo fa Qaaloo Rabbunaa Rabbu-s-samaawaati wa-l arDi lan-nad’uwa min doownihee ilaahan-laQad Qulnaa idhan shaTaTa
And We tied their hearts firm when they stood up and said, “Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth. Never will we invoke besides Him any deity. We would have certainly spoken, then, an excessive transgression.
InnaHum – surely they (mubtada’)
Fityatun (khabr) (jam’u qilla = small plural = Handful of people [less than 10].) – Fata – Young Men.
Allah emphasised their age to show the Value of being youthful, yet God Fearing at the same time.
Aamanoo – they believed (in)
RabbiHim – their Master
fa – so
ZidNaa – We, zaada/yazeedu – Increased.
[Zaada comes from the Masdar ZiYaada. Because the letter Ya is closest to a Kasra, then Kasra is used for this Irregular verb = ZId.)
More Examples: Kun (Be). from - KaWn [Existence] (maSdar). Waw is close to Damma = KUn.)
This technique is called Ajwa (for the middle letters).
Ajwa Key :
Alif letter closest to – Fat-ha. /zabar
Waw letter closest to – Damma . /peysh
Ya letter closest to – Kasra /zeyr.]
(Vowels at the end is called; Naatis – the last letter i.e. Azza-wa-JallA. Etc.).
zidNaa – We increased
Hum – them.
Tamyeez : When you say something Ambiguous and then you say it in a Specific prescribed way,
i.e. Tamyeez is Nasb – numbers and generics.
So Allah increased them, but in what way did Allah increase them?
zidNaa hum Hudan – We increased them – in terms of Guidance. (tamyeez)
RabaTa – tie something tight so it doesn’t have an opening left. (I.e. So no leaking can leak through due to extreme tightness)
RabaTnaa – We tied
‘alaa quloobikum – Upon their hearts.
If Allah said RabaTnaa quloobihim – We tied their hearts = Permanent.
But Allah used the word ‘alaa (upon) which signifies it is NOT a permanent tying. It is tying for a temporary time period.
How do we know it is temporary? Because Allah says ‘Idh’ (when – past tense) in the word after it – showing it happened once.
Pharaoh ordered that all the children of Isra’eel [the Jewish people when they were rightly guided] have their newborn sons executed , and their daughters kept alive as slaves.
The mother of Moses had a son, she had secretly hid him from Pharoah and his people. Yet Allah inspired her that when she felt fear for her son, she should (put him in a basket) and place him in the river Nile. And when she did fear for her son’s death, she placed her son into the river.
Allah gives us amazing imagery of the feelings of the mother of Moses/Musa during that moment.
وَأَصْبَحَ فُؤَادُ أُمِّ مُوسَى ٰ فَارِغًا ۖ إِن كَادَتْ لَتُبْدِي بِهِ لَوْلَا أَن رَّبَطْ نَا عَلَىٰ قَلْبِهَا لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
And the heart of Moses’ mother became empty [i.e. of all Tranquility] . She was about to disclose [the matter concerning] him (i.e. that it is her son [to Pharoah]) had We not bound tightly her heart that she would be of the believers.
Faarigh = to become Empty.
RabaT = Tie something Extremely Tightly. (i.e. tie something so tight so that no Leaks can seep through)
Now Imagine the Scenario:
The mother of Moses is in fear for her son. She is inspired by Allah to place her son into the river. As she places her child into the river, her heart starts dripping , her Tranquillity is dripping/leaking out of her heart , into the river , as she lets go of her son..
So Allah says that He placed a RabaT – something which Tied her heart tightly, so the Tranquillity would stop leaking from her heart. I.e. Allah kept her heart firm , He reassured her through inspiration, that something good would come as a result of this in the near-future.
This child, Moses would be of the mightiest Messengers’ of Allah who would come – to free the Children of Isra’eel from slavery.
Back to surah al Kahf Ayah 14:
Idh QaamOO – when THEY Stood
Qaam – Qiyaam = Stand up;
Has a Ma’nawi (Figurative / in Meaning) and LafDhi (Literally):
Figuratively – they stood up against Injustice and the oppressive leaders of their time.
Literally – they stood up and made Du’a/Invocation/Prayer to Allah.
fa Qaaloo – then Said
RabbUNaa [Raf'/Damma] (mubtada’) – Our Master.
This is a statement and not a Du’a/nida’ because if it was a du’a, they would say; Rabb A naa. (nasb/fat-ha on Rabb).
Rabbu as-samaawaati wa’l ArD – Master of the heavens and the Earth. (khabar)
Our Lord is the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth.
“Lan Na-d’ua min dooni ilaahan..”
Lan = Will not / Will never.
(makes MuDari’ [present tense] verb after it into Nasb form.)
Nad’u – Da’aa (past tense form) / yaD’uw (present tense form) / Da’watan (masdar form = i.e. CallING)
Lan NaD’u – We will not call / we will never call (du’a)..
Min = (in Quranic language can mean either);
1 – from
2 – any
3 – because of..
4 – can be used for ‘Shock/amazement’. I.e. ‘Even’ [harf Min harf al-ta'ajjub]
i.e. Ba’dahu = after him.
Min ba’dihee = Even after him
i.e. You people disagreed about the Religion EVEN (MIN Ba’d) after knowledge had come to you?)
These are the different forms ‘MIN’ is used in the Qur’an.
Doon = Besides
min DooniHee – Any Besides Him.
“We are not going to ever call Any besides Him [Allah], a god (ilaahan)..”
‘Min doonihee’ (‘any besides Him’) was placed earlier in the sentence structure.
The normal sentence structure should have ilaahan placed first;
“lan nad’ua Ilaahan min doonaHu” (we will not call upon a god besides Him.)
By placing ‘Min DooniHee’ earlier in the sentence structure, it has emphasised Exclusivity (Ikhtisaas)
that there is absolutely no-one who will call upon (in Du’a [invocation]) except Allah Almighty.
In Classical Arabic – the Exclusivity of ‘Min DooniHee’ (Any besides Him) would be emphasised through a speaker raising his voice. Showing that besides Allah, we will not call any other besides Him!
Lan Nad’ua – Fi’l (the Na = We – Faa’il)
Min – harf jarr – we will not pray to
dooniHee – jaar and majroor
ilaahan (maf’ool bihi (object)) – god
We are not going to call any god besides Allah..
There is a Hadhf [Omission of a phrase because the recitor is supposed to understand];
Law da’na Hu – had we called him (any god besides Allah)
“La qad qulnaa idhAN shatata.” – surely we would have in that case said a Shatata.
idhAN – In that case. (not related to idh / idha – When)
1 – to Cross a Line / Limit (taJaawuz)
2 – to Distance from something.
(i.e. Shatt-un-nahr – is to be ‘distant from the deepest part of the river.’ )
..if we prayed to a god besides Allah ;
i – We would cross past the line/limit of truth.
ii – We would distance ourselves from the truth.
The Jinns mentioned in surah Jinn ( 72:4 ) also said this same phrase.
هَٰؤُلَاءِ قَوْمُنَا اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً ۖ لَّوْلَا يَأْتُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِسُلْطَانٍ بَيِّنٍ ۖ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا
haa’ulaai Qawmuna-at-taKhadhoo min doonihee ilaahata-l-law-laa ya’toona alayhim bi sulTaanim Bayyin, fa man aDhlamu min-man iftaraa ‘alaAllahi kadhiban .
These, our people, have taken besides Him deities. Why do they not bring for [worship of] them a clear authority? And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie?”
Haa ulaa’i – THIS (is) (mubtada)
QawmuNaa – Our nation (khabr)
Really “Haa ulaa’” means ‘These’, but Ustadh Nouman translated it as ‘This’.
Why? There is a disparity when Pointing out objects (ism al Ishaarah) in english.
The word Qawm [Nation/People] is (ism Jam’) – Collective Noun. It is a singular word, but it is treated as a Plural.
I.e. Qawm-il FaasiqEEN
Naas (a People), Qawm (a Nation), Qarn etc. These words are Singular [and they also have a Plural form], but they are referring to a an entity which Contains many objects within it, so it is said in the plural form.
So it has been translated as ‘This’ [in its singular form], and not ‘These’.
‘This is our Nation’
If you want to remove the ‘IS’ from the above sentence , you would write;
QawmuNaa haa ulaa’i - this nation of ours.
NOTE: if there is NO ‘AL’, it is ‘IS’.
i.e. al Rajul al Kabeer = the Big Man.
al Rajul – Kabeer = the Man is Big.
If You reverse the structure, it makes it ‘OURS’ and not ‘IS’, when you have added the word ‘Haadha’ (this) in the sentence.
it-takhidhoo (this could also be Khabr) – fi’l MaaDiy [Past tense verb] – iFti’aaL – from “i-taKhadha” from: aKhadha – to Take (physically).
It-takadha – to take literally and figuratively.
I.e. to take hold of a book physically – aKhadha would be used.
To take hold of a book, AND then to take hold of it’s teachings = it-taKhadha.
It-takhadhOO – THEY have taken..
min – Even [for Amazement - ta'ajjub]
Doon-illaah – besides Allah!
aaliha = gods [plural of Ilaah (god)].
It is maNsoob – because it is maf’ool bihi (the direct Object) of it-taKhadhoo.
“This nation of ours, they dare to take other gods, besides Allah!?”
SHORTCUT to Differentiate between Fi’l MaaDiy (Past tense verb) & Command (‘Amr) :
IttaKh A dha ( Past tense) – He Took / – itTakh I dhu (fi’l ‘amr – Command verb i.e. Take it!)
I.e. jaahAdu ( He Struggled ) / JaahIdu (‘amr – command = Struggle ! )
-aamAnu ( he Believed ) / aamInu ( believe ! )
-QaatAlU ( to believe ) / qaatIlu ( fight! )
- aQaAmoo ( they Stood Upright ) – aQIYmoo [ Do Stand Upright! ] (stand / erect / upright etc.)
Difference between Suffix : AW (Past tense / fi’l MaDiy) & UW (‘Amr – Command.)
-Aat AW az-zakaata – THEY gave the Charity. (fi’l MaDiy – past tense )
-Aat UW az-zakaata – GIVE the Charity! (‘amr – command ).
وَإِذِ اعْتَزَلْتُمُوهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ فَأْوُوا إِلَى الْكَهْفِ يَنشُرْ لَكُمْ رَبُّكُم مِّن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيُهَيِّئْ لَكُم مِّنْ أَمْرِكُم مِّرْفَقًا
Wa idhI’tazal-tumoo-hum wa maa ya’budoona il-la-Allaha fa’wuuw ilaa-l kahfi yaNshur laKum Rabbukum-min-Rahmatihee wa yuHayyi’ laKum-min amrikum-miRfaqa
[The youths said to one another], “And when you have withdrawn from them and that which they worship other than Allah , retreat to the cave. Your Lord will spread out for you of His mercy and will prepare for you from your affair facility.”
I’tizaal – to avoid someone deliberately.
This is the statement of the people in the cave;
“When you all have turned away from, ignored, kept your distance from..
وَتَرَى الشَّمْسَ إِذَا طَلَعَت تَّزَاوَرُ عَن كَهْفِهِمْ ذَاتَ الْيَمِينِ وَإِذَا غَرَبَت تَّقْرِضُهُمْ ذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ وَهُمْ فِي فَجْوَةٍ مِّنْهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ مَن يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلْ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ وَلِيًّا مُّرْشِدًا
wa tara-ash-Shamsa idhaa Tala’at-tazaawaru ‘an kahfihim dhaata-l Yameeni wa idhaa Gharabat-taqriDuhum dhaata-shimaali wa hum fee Fajwatin-minhu, dhaalika min aayaat-illaah, man yahdi-illahu fa huwwa-l muhtad. wa man yuDlil, fa lan taJida lahu waliyyan-murshida.
And [had you been present], you would see the sun when it rose, inclining away from their cave on the right, and when it set, passing away from them on the left, while they were [laying] within an open space thereof. That was from the signs of Allah . He whom Allah guides is the [rightly] guided, but he whom He leaves astray – never will you find for him a protecting guide.
“Wa taRaa ash-shamsa”
taRaa – Ra’aa (past tense) / yaRaa (present tense) = to See.
taRaa = you See
ash-ShamsA – the Sun.
In Nasb form because it is maf’ool bihi (direct object) being seen.
Idhaa – when
tala’aT – IT rose.
taZaawara (from taFaa’ul pattern – to do [to] one another) –
Zaara (past tense)/ yaZooru (present tense)/ Ziyaara (maSdar) = to Visit.
taZaawara – to Visit one another.
Similar to ta’aawun – to Co-operate.
Since taZaawara comes from the root Zaara – to Visit. If two parties visit each together, that is what is being portrayed.
So Allah is showing the image of the sun rising, and visiting us, whilst we are also visiting it. (taZaawara – a two groups meeting.)
‘An – ‘in regard to’. It has an implication; To avoid the other.
The sun is coming, and it is making sure that it stays away from the cave. So it cannot be seen.
Dhaata al Yameen – to the Right.
You don’t say “Ilaa” (to) or “Fee” (In/On). Rather, the arabic expression is “Dhaat.” = ‘to the’ [i.e. in this case - the Right].
Wa idha gharabat taQridahum dhaati-l-Shamaali:
And when it (Sun) would set (sunset) on their left,
taQriDuhum – maQrooD / QarDa – scissors / cut.
It would cut away from them.
So during the day, the sun would go close, but not too close so that their cave can be seen.
And during the night when the sun set, the sun would be completely cut away from them.
Some scholars used this description to try to find the Geogrophical location of the Cave ;
- a Cave where the Sun rises and meets you from it’s right, but it just about misses the cave.
- a Cave where the Sun totally Cuts off when it Sun sets (at maGhrib time).
..Wa hum fee fajwatin minH
Wa - Wa al Haaliyyah – translated as ‘ While ‘ (and not ‘and’).
Wa Hum fee fajwatin minhu – while they were in a wide open space between it (the cave).
Fajwah – wide open space between 2 things.
Dhaalika (mubtada) – that
Min – from
Aay aat (khabr) – Sign S .
(so ALL these descriptions i.e. The young men fleeing to the cave, what they said, the sun, its rising, its setting, the inside of a cave etc. Are all signs from the signs of Allah).
Illaah – (of) Allah.
Mixing Genders in Speech = ALOT . | Same Genders in Speech = LESS:
Dhaalika is a Masculine term for (That). Tilka would be ‘that’ in feminine form.
AayAAT is a Femine plural of the word Aayah [miraculous Sign].
By using the male term Dhalika (that), and then using a female plural word: AayAAT.
Has the following implications:
Plural: - more than 1 object is being referred to as signs from Allah.
(i.e. The young men, their fleeing, the cave, their sayings, the duas’ they made, the sunrise, the sunset, the inside of a cave etc.)
Whenever genders of words Conflict - it implies MANY .
Whenever genders of words are Same - it implies LESS .
I.e. Wa maa Kaana (and Was [Masculine]) SalAATuhum (their prayer [Feminine]) mukaa’an wa taSDiyah -
= and their (the disbelievers) Prayers [Feminine] Were [Masculine] nothing but whistling and clapping.
So Allah used mixed gender in this ayah to show ;
- Their Prayer was not real prayer (i.e. not sincere, or not practically a real prayer.)
(if their prayer was real, it would be same genders. I.e. Something like; Kaana T sal AAT uhum. – same Feminine gender)
Dhaalika min Aayaat-illah – that is from the signs of Allah.
Min – from (harf al jarr)
Aayaat – signs (muDaaf – possessed)
Illaah – (of) Allah (muDaaf ilayh – possessor).
man yaHdi-illahi fa huwwa-al MuHtadi …
Man yaHdi-illah – whoever He is guiding.
yaHdi is maJzoom (sukoon / silent) of the full word yaHdee (He is guiding).
The maJzoom form will cause a Condition to be attached to it. I.e. “Whoever Allah WOULD guide..”
Fa huwwa-l muHtadi – then he is guided.
Huwwa – he (mubtada’)
muHtadi – guided (khabr)
Why is muHtad I with a kasra on its last letter, when grammatically it is Raf’/maRfoo ‘ ?
Because it is Irregular conjugations.
yaHtadee into Ism Faa’il (noun doer) = muHtadin.
The arabs remove the letter ‘Ya’ [Y] at the end and replace it with Kasra.
So maJroor and maRfoo ‘ form of muHtad = muHtadIN.
maNsoob form = muHtadiYAn. (they bring the letter ‘Ya’ [Y] at the end back.)
[I.e. Rabbanaa sami'naa munaadi yA n. (Nasb form)] (see surah aal Imran 3:193 ) ]
But with AL at the beginning = AL muHtad.
Similar word with Similar rules :
MuttaqI. In raf’ and jarr = stays same as Muttaq I . But as Nasb = MuttaqiYAn.
Or AL -Muttaqi .
So we will say that MuHtad – it is Mabni (stateless).
Wa Man yuDlil fa lan tajida lahu waliyya…
Wa man – and who
aDalla – you dont say aDlala. Rather, you say aDalla.
(this is muDaa’af – repeat of the same letters [through the Shadda emphasising the strength of the double letter].)
- yuDlil (maJzoom / sukoon).
This needs to occur because the Shadda requires that the last letter be pronounced.
But it can’t because of the maJzoom form/sukoon/silence. i.e. saying yuDil (with one ‘Lam’ [L] at the end) and yuDill [with 2 Lam's (LL)] while it has a Sukoon on it makes it hard to find out if 2 Lam’s are there or only 1.
So how can a Shadda (double) letter be pronounced while in a form of maJzoom [sukoon/silence]?
The only way is to transform it and say; yuDlil .
The Laam was not separated before until it was Forced to separate here.
If it was in Plural form however, the Laam’s would come together again because the sukoon/jazm would be placed on the Letter ‘Waw’ [W] which represents plural.
I.e. yuDillOOW .
“Then whoever Allah guides..”
Fa – then (jawab al shart – response to the conditions)
Lan – future tense ‘No’ [causes verb after it in Nasb form]
TaJidA [Nasb] – You Find
LaHu – (Especially) for Him ['Especially' because it is placed earlier in the sentence structure.]
Waliyun – A protective friend.
But people have protective friend’s don’t they?
muRshida – a Guider, who sets them right (on the right way).
You will not find a protective friend who will Guide him aright.
maWsoof and Siffa (waliyan murshida)
Maf’ool bihi (possessor) of taJida (‘you will find’).
Lan – harf jaazim (causing the word after it into maJzoom / sukoon / silent).
TaJida (fi’l muDaari’ – present tense )
TAjida i.e. Anta (you) = Faa’il / doer.
LaHu – For him (jaar and majroor) – which came earlier to cause Ikhtisaas (Exclusivity/especially.)
“And whoever Allah misguides, you will not find anyone – especially for him – as a guardian friend who guides him to the right way.”