Sarf VERB PATTERNS

This table is extremely beneficial for learners of Arabic because it; 1) Summarizes the different Verb Patterns of Arabic words
2) Then tells what each Patterns meaning is, in its; Past / Present and Tenseless (Masdar) form.
3) Gives Examples to show how the Patterns work.

How to Benefit: if you ever see a Verb (the 3 Main Root letters) Word fitted into a certain Pattern style, you can compare it to this Table and see what is being meant.

 

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What you should Know:

 

1 – If you have looked at the Past Tense and Present Tense Lessons, then you know that:
dArAbA = he Hit [past tense], and Ya-Drib = He is Hitting [Present tense].

This table will use Fa3ala [he did], yaF3alu [he is Doing], Fi3Lun [to Do] as the main example.

2 – There are many verb patterns in Arabic. A sister (we ask Allah to accept her good) has made a table which summarizes an entire book into this small, useful coloured table.

So now we have a table with 10 of the main Arabic Verb Patterns used in the Arabic language.

3 – Study the table from the Left to the Right. –>

Now let’s study the Table:

Verb Pattern 1 – to Do is the normal Pattern of:

Fa3ala [he Did] - yaF3alu [he is Doing] – Fi’lun [to Do.]

The meaning is basic, simply ‘to Do’ the verb [doing word] that is being said. i.e. Daraba = he Hit.

Now if we look at Verb Pattern 2 – Intense/Repetition, we see the word:
Fa33ala (we see the 2nd root letter has been repeated twice [shadda/emphasised].)

Try saying out loud; DaRRaba! (he Hit intensively/repeatedly [past tense]) – yuDaRRibu! (he is Hitting intensively/repeatedly [present tense]) – taDReeb!TO Hit intensively/repeatedly [tenseless].

You see that you have to say it in a Powerful, Intensive and Repetitive way. And this is exactly what this 2nd verb pattern means.

The 3rd Pattern means; to TRY to do something with someone/thing else.(you see this is hinted at by the long stretch of sound):

Faa3ala (he tried to Do with someone else [past tense]) / yuFaa3ilu (he is trying to Do with someone else [present tense]) – muFaa3alatun or Fi3aal (to try to Do with someone else [tenseless]).

Lets practice an example:

Juhd = to Struggle. | Jaahada (he tried to Struggle with someone else [past tense]) / yuJaahadu (trying to Struggle with someone/something else [present tense]) / muJaahadatun / Jihaadun (to try to Struggle with someone/something else )

The 4th pattern (he does) is one which you should try not to confuse with letter ALIF’s other meanings, which has many meanings (I [1st person], maximize meaning of a word, Question mark, and now this.)

How do you remove the confusion? Simply stick to this patterns full rules:

Af3alA – you see that it starts with an ALIF (with a fat-ha on it), and it ends with a Fat-ha (zabar) on the last letter. This is the biggest sign that it is this Verb Pattern 4 and not any of ALIF’s other meanings.

This verb pattern means: Doing something to something/someone else, or Causing something else.

I.e. AslamA = he Submitted / yuSlimu = Submitting [present tense] / Islaamun [to Submit]

I hope you know how to use the table now for the rest of the words. If you don’t, just ask!

 

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